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This diagram includes all the solid and liquid phases of the system, plus the gas phase. The ‘point’ symbol means the concentration in mol/kg of the compound, and the ‘pressure’ symbol means the pressure in mbar. The ‘free energy’ symbol is the standard Gibbs free energy of reaction. The ‘delta value’ is the standard Gibbs free energy of reaction per mole of the compound. The delta value is temperature-dependent. The negative free energy of reaction implies that the reaction is thermodynamically spontaneous.
The Ellingham diagram is a thermodynamically based concept and is not a specific reaction mechanism. Since the purpose is to predict the composition of the reaction, the diagram is only valid if the correct reaction mechanisms are being used. Ellingham diagrams can be used to describe the relative stabilities of solid and liquid phases and the gas phase, but the lack of consideration of the kinetic aspects of the reaction can distort the results. This is especially true for the description of solid phases. The problems of the solid phases also apply to the gas phase. Kinetic considerations are not considered in most Ellingham diagrams, and the diagrams are not usually used to predict the actual composition of a reaction.
The bars show the relative stabilities of all compounds. The height of the bar is a measure of how stable the compound is relative to the other compounds. The width is a measure of how easy it is to produce. The location of the bars can be shifted up or down by the addition of reductant. Since the free energy of reaction is a second-order effect, the effect of adding reductant will be to change the relative location of compounds, but not their heights.
Ellingham diagrams are useful for examining the relative stability of compounds in a system, particularly if the system is in a particular reduction condition (e.g., a metallic atmosphere). They are particularly useful for examining the relative stabilities of compounds with a given reductant (e.g., iron). The most common error made in using an Ellingham diagram to predict the composition of a reaction is the failure to consider the kinetic aspects of the reaction. The Ellingham diagram may be graphed in the original paper, or later published books (e.g., 827ec27edc